The Vulpecula Constellation – Facts in brief:
What is it? –
The Vulpecula Constellation is not associated with any characters from Greek or Roman mythology:
The name ‘Vulpecula’ is Latin for ‘the little fox’, or ‘the fox’. It is a diminutive of the word ‘Vulpes’ meaning fox.
Vulpecula, the Fox Constellation, is regarded as a fairly small and faint constellation in the Northern celestial sky.
Vulpecula is also one of the official International Astronomical Union (IAU) listed88 modern constellations as seen in the night sky from Earth. It is listed as the 55th largest Constellation filling around 0.7% of the night sky.
Vulpecula, abbreviated to ‘Vul’, or ‘Vulpeculae’ (its Latin name) is quite easy to recognize, as it resembles the outline of the fox.
The Constellation of Vulpecula is a member of The Hercules family, of Constellations, which also includes:
- Aquila; Ara; Centaurus; Corona Australis; Corvus; Crater; Crux; Cygnus; Hercules; Hydra; Lupus; Lyra; Ophiuchus; Sagitta; Scutum; Sextans; Serpens and Triangulum Australe
Where is it located? –
The Vulpecula Constellation is positioned in the fourth quadrant of the Northern Hemisphere, north of the ecliptic (which is different from the Celestial Equator) .
It is sometimes referred to as being located in the NQ4 Quadrant.
FACT: The ecliptic is the imaginary line tracing the route that The Sun, the Moon, and the Planets take across the sky, over the year.
The Vulpecula Constellation is located in an area of the sky close to the Milky Way.
The Constellation of Vulpecula is not considered to be a circumpolar constellation as it is not visible for most of the year in Northern latitudes. The best time period to view it is between July and September.
There are 5 Constellations that are visible throughout the year, from most locations located north of the celestial equator, making them Circumpolar, they are:
- Cassiopeia Constellation
- Cepheus Constellation
- Draco Constellation
- Ursa Major Constellation
- Ursa Minor Constellation
FACT: A constellation that is visible all year round is known as a Circumpolar Constellation.
There are 3 Southern Constellations that are also circumpolar –
Where can it be seen?
Co-ordinates of a right ascension, or left ascension and their declination are used to locate all of the Constellations, like Vulpecula.
Vulpecula is most prominent in the Northern Hemisphere.
The Constellation of Vulpecula lies at a 20 hours right ascension, and a declination of 25 degrees North
It’s more easily visible from the Northern Hemisphere at latitudes between +90 degrees and +55 degrees and covers an area of 268 square degrees in the Northern sky.
Meet The Neighbors
The Vulpecula Constellation is bordered by several other Constellations:
- Cygnus and Lyra – to the North
- Pegasus, Delphinus, Equuleus, Sagitta and Aquila – to the South
It is most visible in the Northern Hemisphere in the evening, during the summer months.
How can you identify The Constellation of Vulpecula?
The simplest method for spotting any particular Constellation from Earth is to first of all locate the brightest star in that Constellation, and then look at the neighboring illuminations, or other neighboring well-known Constellations, to see if you can identify a recognizable pattern.
There are few bright stars located within the faint Constellation of Vulpecula.
There are only 5 Stars that make up the main Vulpecula Constellation.
The Stars in any Constellation are listed and named in order of luminosity from the brightest Star to the faintest Star.
The ‘Alpha’ letter is normally allocated to the brightest star, then ‘Beta’ and so on in decreasing order through the letters of the Greek alphabet.
- In the Constellation of Vulpecula, the brightest Star is Anser (Alpha Vulpeculae), and has an apparent visual magnitude of4.44
- The second brightest Star in Vulpecula is called ‘23 Vulpeculae’
- The largest Star identified is NR Vulpeculae
- The dimmest Star is HD 187193, an orange-red Giant Star type Star and listed in the Henry Draper catalogue (HD), with an apparent magnitude of around +6.0
- The furthest Star is HD 180713 (HIP 94736) that’s a blue Star and not visible by the naked eye. It’s a binary, multiple Star System
- There are 44 Stars in Vulpecula that are visible by the naked eye.
- A total of 953 Stars have been identified by the Hipparcos satellite but not all visible by the naked eye.
The Vulpecula Constellation can be identified in the night sky as the little fox.
While Vulpecula is often connected with this image it is also represented in other ways, such as ‘the fox and the goose’.
The brightest stars of Vulpecula can be viewed from Earth, from a northern location, by the naked eye.
The Star System within Vulpecula
There is only 1 named Star within Vulpecula, and that is ‘Anser’ the alpha Vul Star, that has been approved by the International Astronomical Union (IAU).
The Constellation of Vulpecula has 5 main Stars making up the imaginary outline of the fox holding a goose in its mouth.
The 5 bright stars that form the shape of ‘the fox’, listed from brightest Star to fainter stars are:
- Anser (Alpha Vulpeculae) – a Red Giant Star, and the brightest in Vulpecula
- 23 Vulpeculae –a Binary Star
- 31 Vulpeculae – a Variable Star
- 13 Vulpeculae – a Blue Giant Star
- 15 Vulpeculae – a variable Star
Vulpecula can claim its position of fame in Space as the location of the first ever pulsar Star to be discovered.
- PSR B1919+21
It is named after the word ‘pulsar’ and includes the declination and right ascension coordinates of where it can be found.
In 1967 the PSR B1919+21 star was discovered by Jocelyn Bell Burnell, (a British astrophysicist), and Antony Hewish (who supervised her Space research thesis)
They won the Nobel peace prize for Physics for their discovery.
At the time when they were trying to identify the signal they thought they might have detected extra terrestrial activity. However, with further investigation the signals were as identified as rapidly rotating neuron stars that simply had very strong magnetic fields.
This pulsar star is around 2,283 light years distant.
FACT: A Pulsar Star is a rotating neuron Star that emits a focused beam of electromagnetic radiation. The emission of this beam is only visible if you are in its path.
Pulsars are known as the lighthouses of the universe because their emission appears to pulsate into space.
There are no Stars in Vulpecula with an apparent magnitude brighter than a 4th magnitude classification.
Location of Vulpecula
Vulpecula can be spotted in the Northern Hemisphere, also referred to as the Northern celestial sky.
The Vulpecula Constellation is used as a guide-point in the sky used by astronomers and amateur stargazers to identify certain Deep Sky objects.
When to see the Constellation Vulpecula
The best months to spot the Constellation of Vulpecula in the Northern Hemisphere are in July, August and September.
The best time to spot it is high in the Southeast in the evening around the world.
How was it formed, found and named?
The word ‘Vulpecula’ is from a Latin root meaning ’the little Fox’, or ‘the Fox.
Within the image of Vulpecula the image of the fox was depicted holding a goose in its mouth, and was sometimes referred to as the constellation of Vulpecula
The Constellation of Vulpecula is not one of the original 48 Constellations catalogued by Ptolemy; it was in fact the Polish astronomer Johannes Hevelius who created this constellation.
Vulpecula is one of the 12 constellations created by the polish astronomer Johannes Hevelius in the 17th Century and one of the 7 extant (still existing) Hevelius Constellations, of which some are named after hunting animals.
The 7 Extant Constellations are:
1. Canes Venatici – represented as the ‘Hunting Dogs’
2. Lacerta – represented as the ‘Lizard’
3. Leo Minor – represented as the ‘Lion Club’
4. Lynx – represented as the ‘Lynx’
5. Scutum – represented as the ‘Shield’
6. Sextans (Sextans Uraniae) – represented as the ‘Sextant of Urania’
7. Vulpecula – represented as the ‘Little Fox’
Vulpecula fills an area of 268 square degrees.
- Initially, the shapes of their star patterns informally categorized the Constellations in the sky.
- Eventually, the IAU published the official listing of constellation boundaries. This maps the constellations by their sky coordinates not by the line patterns and shapes they are referred to by.
It is one of the 88 Constellations listed in the official IAU chart published by the International Astronomical Union (IAU).
The Constellation of Vulpecula is located close to the center of an area known as the summer triangle.
3 bright Stars form the summer triangle:
- Altair, Vega, Deneb
The outline of Vulpecula
This constellation was originally known as Vulpecula cum Ansere, (and Vulpecula et anser), which is Latin meaning the fox and the goose.
Eventually the Stars in Vulpecula et Anser were separated into two Constellations called Vulpecula and Anser, but then merged to form one Constellation which we know today as Vulpecula.
In early images of this Constellation the goose was in the grasp of the mouth of the fox, however in later depictions the goose had disappeared from the main constellation and is now considered to be a sub-constellation of Vulpecula.
The shape of a long fox holding a goose by the neck, representing the Constellation of Vulpecula, comes from the position of its 5 main Stars:
You will have to use your imagination using the following Stars as part of the outline of this asterism in the shape of a long fox with a bushy tail.
- 1 Vul and Alpha Vulpeculae represent the area of the head of the fox and where it holds the goose in its jaws
- 13 Vul – represents the front leg of the fox
- 31 Vul, 23 Vul and 15 Vul – represent the long bushy tail
This image works when you imagine a long thin fox with a long bushy tail
What’s within the Vulpecula Constellation?
The Constellation of Vulpecula is formed by of a number of different components.
The different components housed by the Constellation Vulpecula are mainly Stars, Deep Sky Objects and Messier objects (galaxies).
The Vulpecula Constellation contains:
- 5 main Stars
- 4 stars that host an exoplanet
- 0 associated meteor showers
- 1 Messier Object –
- Messier 27 (M27) also known as NGC 6853, the Dumbell Nebula
There are many different types of Stars in the star system categorized by size, lifespan and luminosity.
Generally, larger Stars have a shorter lifespan.
Stars are formed from clouds of interstellar gas and include:
There are many different types of Stars in the star system categorized by size, lifespan and luminosity.
Generally, larger Stars have a shorter lifespan.
Stars are formed from clouds of interstellar gas and include:
Red Dwarf Stars
Most of the stars in the galaxy are Red Dwarf Stars. They are small in size measuring about 40-50% of the mass of The Sun. They are cool and their luminosity has only about 10% of the brightness of the Sun (our brightest Star), and they live for longer.
Brown Dwarf Stars
These are known as failed stars that form like other stars but don’t reach the mass, heat or density to begin the nuclear fusion process. They are only about 8% of the mass of the Sun and are red not brown, and not easy to spot in the night sky.
Red Giant Stars
These are giant luminous stars that have a low or medium mass. A Red Giant Star is formed when a star expands its volume by fusing all of its hydrogen into helium, and then burning the helium to produce carbon and oxygen to expand.
These are giant, bright stars that range from 10-100 times the size of the Sun and are 1000 times brighter. They are big and hot and therefore burn out quickly. The biggest are called Blue super giants or hyper giants. The biggest ever discovered was about 10 million times brighter than the Sun,
These are main-sequence stars like the Sun, but only 80% of its size, and are bright stars,
These are small burnt out husks of stars, about the same size as the Earth. White Dwarfs are dense and represent the final state of evolution for a star, like most stars in the galaxy.
These are the remains of a White Dwarf after it cools and darkens. This is likely to happen after about 10 billion years of life.
These are also main-sequence stars like the Sun, but twice the size, and are bright stars and hot.
Other types of stars include the Orange Giant, Neutron stars, Variable Stars and Binary Stars
What is a Bright Star?
The sky is home to various bright stars.
The brightness of a star is measured by a value called its magnitude (apparent magnitude) and they come in different sizes, composition, mass and color.
Their vast distance away from us is measured in light years from the Earth, the Sun or even the Milky Way.
The lower the magnitude value the brighter the star appears in the night sky when viewed from Earth.
FACT: The Sun is considered to be the brightest star in the sky.
Vulpecula Constellation can be identified by locating the bright Star Anser (the alpha Vul Star), in the center of the triangular shaped asterism known as the summer triangle in the night sky
As well as Stars and Star Clusters, the Vulpecula Constellation also has deep sky objects and galaxies (or even globular clusters or open clusters).
Deep Sky Objects
The Constellation of Vulpecula contains deep sky objects, including objects from the Charles Messier New General Catalogue (abbreviated to NGC):
The 1 Messier objects is:
Messier 27 (M27, NGC 6853, the Dumbell Nebula)
The Dumbell Nebula is one of the best-known planetary nebulae in the night sky. It’s called the Dumbell because of its double-lobed shape, but sometimes called the Apple Core Nebula.
FACT: A Deep Sky Object is an astronomical object, that is not a solar system object like the Sun, Moon, Comet or a Planet. An individual Star is not considered to be a Deep Sky Object.
Deep Sky Objects are faint objects that can still be observed by the naked eye in the night sky from Earth.
Deep Sky Objects include Galaxies, Star Clusters and Nebulae.
- Star clusters – such as Globular Clusters of Stars or Open Clusters of Stars
- Dark Nebula, Planetary Nebula, Diffuse Nebula, and Supernova remnants
- Galaxy Groups, Galaxies, Gravitational Lenses and Quasars.
What is a Nebula?
A Nebula is a massive cloud of gas and dust in Space.
Some Nebulae are formed when a star explodes and then dies, as is the case with a Supernova. Sometimes they can act as Star nurseries and are the areas where new Stars are forming.
The Nebulae are the spaces in between the stars referred to as interstellar space.
There are several types of Nebulae:
FACT: a ‘reflection nebula’ is an interstellar cloud that should be a dark nebula (a molecular cloud) however its dust reflects light from a nearby bright star and it reflects the light, hence the name.
Images of the Nebulae have been captured using professional Space telescopes, such as the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope, operated by NASA, and the famous Hubble Space Telescope.
Vulpecula is often abbreviated to ‘Vulp’ from a naming convention used by NASA.
What is a Messier?
A Messier is a cluster of Stars
There is 1 Messier object within Constellation Vulpecula called M27.
It was Charles Messier, a French astronomer, who is credited with cataloging each of the Messier Star clusters, around 1764.
He is famous for publishing an astronomical catalogue that lists 110 nebulae and star clusters, known as the New General Catalogue (used in its abbreviated form NGC and numbered).
These later became known as the Messier objects.
FACT: A star cluster is a large group of Stars that can be Globular Clusters or Open Clusters:
A global cluster is a spherical collection of ‘Old Stars,’ numbering hundreds to millions, that are tightly bound by gravity and orbits a galactic core.
An open cluster is a looser formation of ‘Young Stars’ that generally has less than a few hundred Stars.
NGC 6885, also known as Caldwell 37, is an open Star cluster. It is located 1.950 light years from the Sun with a visual magnitude of 5.7 – 8.1.
Brocchi’s Cluster, also known as Collinder 399 or Al Sufi’s Cluster, is a group of Stars located close to the border of the Sagitta Constellation.
The brighter Stars in this group form the well-known asterism called ‘the Coathanger’, within Vulpecula.
The Coathanger asterism in Vulpecula is made up from the 10 brightest Stars in Brocchi’s Cluster (or Al Sufi’s Cluster)
A supernova remnant is the structure that’s left after a star explodes in a supernova.
There are 3 types of supernova remnants: shell-like, composite and mixed-morphology (or thermal composite).
Background & Facts:
The Greeks were the first ancient culture to name the modern 88 Constellations in the sky.
It was the Greek Astronomer – Ptolemy, who first cataloged 48 early constellations, in the 2nd Century (2 AD.).
It wasJohannes Hevelius who created the Constellation of Vulpecula and it still remains as one of the 88 modern Constellations defined by the IAU.
In 1603, The German Astronomer – Johann Bayer, systematically assigned names to the brightest stars in and cataloged them in his Star atlas – ‘Uranometria Omnium Asterismorum’. Bayer depicted Vulpecula as ‘the fox’
The Bayer designations are stellar designations where the stars within Constellations are initially identified by a name or a letter from the Greek Alphabet from Alpha through Omega (in order of brightness).
1. The names of the Stars begin with a letter of the Greek alphabet starting with– Alpha, then beta, gamma, etc.
2. Followed by the genitive form of their parent constellation’s Latin name – ‘Vulpecula’ with ‘e’, makes the name ‘Vulpeculae’
3. Giving the first Vulpecula Star, ‘Anser’ the name Alpha Vulpeculae
The main stars of Vulpecula are named by their apparent magnitude (luminosity) from the brightest to faintest star in decreasing order:
1. Anser (Alpha Vulpeculae) – an apparent visual magnitude of 4.44
2. 23 Vulpeculae – a variable visual magnitude of 4.50
3. 31 Vulpeculae – an apparent visual magnitude of 4.56
4. 13 Vulpeculae – an apparent visual magnitude of 4.56
5. 15 Vulpeculae – an apparent visual magnitude of 4.66
6. 1 Vulpeculae – an apparent visual magnitude of 4.77
7. HR 7739 – an apparent visual magnitude of 4.79
8. 29 Vulpeculae – an apparent visual magnitude of 4.81
9. 12 Vulpeculae – an apparent visual magnitude of 4.90
10. 30 Vulpeculae – an apparent visual magnitude of 4.92
The importance of the Constellations such as Vulpecula dates way back to the times of the Babylonians who identified constellations with bright Stars.
One of the first records of groups of Stars in Vulpecula was noted by the Persian astronomer Al Sufi and called ‘Al Sufi’s Cluster.
It was recorded in the year 964, in his publication – the Book of fixed Stars.
The image the identified for Vulpeculae was that of a fox.
The Bright Stars of Vulpeculae
The Bright Stars
If you look up and into the night sky you can imagine the recognizable outline of the Constellation of Vulpecula, which is a fox with a long bushy tail.
This main constellation is made up of 5 main Stars
Stars with Planets
Vulpecula has 4 Star with an exoplanets orbiting around it in the solar system but it is unlikely to be able to support life forms.
The furthest exoplanet discovered was actually in the Andromeda Galaxy, not in the Milky Way.
Not all the stars within the Vulpecula Constellation are visible to the naked eye but with telescopes and modern imagery techniques is it possible to glimpse all of the stars.
FACT: An exoplanet (also referred to as an extrasolar Planet) is a planet that orbits a Star that is not located within our Solar System (exoplanets do not orbit our Sun)
Nothing stands still in the sky.
Planets are continually being discovered and lists updated.
The Constellations change their positions throughout the year as the Earth rotates around the Sun.
This means our position in space is forever changing and as a result our view of what’s in space changes too, and will continue to do so.
What is the purpose of Vulpecula –
In ancient times the dots, bright lights and perceived objects in the sky were of great interest and the makings of folklore to a great range of people from seamen to farmers.
From children to the elderly, we have had an ongoing fascination, with our solar system and star system. Perhaps it’s because the enormity and variety within it makes us realize just how large and exciting the universe is.
FACT: The Star System or Stellar System is a small number of stars that orbit around each other and are bound together by gravity.
When it becomes a large group of stars, again bound together in the same way, by gravity, it is known as a Galaxy or Star Cluster.
Whether they contain small groups of stars or larger groups of start the both come under the classification of ‘Star System’.
The Vulpecula celestial pole
The celestial pole defines the poles of the celestial equatorial coordinate system.
An object at the Celestial pole has a declination of 0 degrees.
- The declinations for the north celestial pole is +90 degrees
- The declinations for the south celestial pole is -90 degrees
The celestial poles are not permanently in a fixed position against the background of the stars as everything moves in Space.
Vulpecula is located in the northern celestial sky at a +90 degree north and -55 degrees North declination, and an average 20-hours right ascension.
Navigational tools in the sky
The many Constellations in the night sky were a useful navigation tool and guide as well as the subject of legends and myths.
42 of the Constellations have been named after animals with a story behind each name, like the fox
Historical significance: the legends, myths or stories surrounding Constellation of Vulpecula
Many ancient civilizations have related the Constellations in the sky to suit their beliefs and creations itself. They have been the subject of folklore and experiences for a very long time.
Vulpecula is not connected with any Greek or Roman myths or gods, however it has been connected with images and associations in other cultures based on the shape of a fox.
In the 17th Century when Johannes Hevelius cataloged the Constellation of Vulpecula, he positioned it close to two Constellations that also represented hunting animals.
The two Constellations close by were Aquila, known as the eagle and Lyra, known as the vulture.
Hevelius identifiedVulpecula et Anser as the little fox with the goose and when the Constellations Vulpecula and Anser re-merged, the brightest Star was given the name Anser and represented the goose.
He said that it represented a story from Greek mythology where a fox carrying a goose in its mouth to present it to Cerberus who was the dog that guarded the gate to the underworld.
At that time Hevelius created a Constellation called Cerberus, but this Constellation is now obsolete.
Ancient associations with the constellations
The Greeks, the Romans and the Sumerians all had an interest in the constellations in the sky.
The Sumerians were the first literate civilization of the Ancient Mesopotamia (an area occupying parts of Turkey and the Syria of today, Iraq, Iran)
The Sumerian civilization was not unified like the ancient Greek or Roman civilizations it was bonded by a common attitude.
Their belief systems featured many deities. They regarded their gods as being responsible for everything and as such held them in great respect. Many stories arose as a result.
For thousands of years, various cultures around the world have identified and named the constellation we know and see in the night sky as Vulpecula.
The Mesopotamian civilization (the first known civilization) identified constellations like Vulpecula.
FACT: The ancient lands of the Mesopotamians now stretches across Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Kuwait
Vulpecula and the other constellations in the sky had a practical use.
The ancient Mesopotamians and in Asia used the orientation of the constellations to set the seasons for sowing crops and harvesting.
The Babylonians also recorded details of various bright stars within the constellations in their Babylonian star catalogues before 100BCE.
What is the difference between a constellation and an asterism?
An asterism is a group of stars that appear to form a pattern in the night sky but with no officially determined boundaries.
It can make up part of a constellation or cross the boundaries of an official constellation or even a defunct constellation.
An asterism is a more vague assembly of stars than a recognized constellation.
The meteor showers of Vulpecula
There are no annual meteor showers associated with the Constellation of Vulpecula
Fun Facts about Constellations – Did you know that?
- The Constellation of Vulpecula is not one of the 12 constellations of the Zodiac
- The sky is not divided equally between all the constellations
- The fox is also significant in other cultures
- In old English culture, Vulpes vulpes represented the red fox
- In Ancient French the word ‘goupil’ is a derivative of the Latin word Vulpes
- The Irish word for fox is sionnach, and the behavior shenanigans (another Irish word) comes from this root meaning to ‘play the fox’ or get up to high jinx
- In German the work fukh has many derivitives in other languages, like Fox in English,
- Ancient indo-European word ‘puk’ means tail
- In India ‘Puccha is a tail
- In Polish ‘Puch’ means wooly hair, referring to the bushy tail of a fox
- The collective term for foxes is a ‘Skulk’
- Constellations have been represented in many cultures as a sign for harvest time and as a navigational guide.
- There are over 4000 known exoplanets in the night sky, with another 5000 awaiting classification
- The scale of a Constellation is measured in square degrees
- The planet Jupiter is often cited when making size comparisons between planets or stars. The Jupiter mass is a unit of mass equal to the total mass of planet Jupiter
- Charles Messier the French Astronomer who cataloged the Messier objects has a crater on the Moon named after him.
- Constellations like Vulpecula are not part of our Solar System; they are groups of stars that appear to form shapes that are visible with the naked eye from Earth.
- The largest Constellation is called Hydra and the smallest Constellation is called Crux
- The Sun does not belong to any constellation.
- A Constellation does not actually exist as a fixed object, it is a group of bright stars that happen to be in a random place and are light years apart and ever moving. We see the pattern of their presence.
- The center of a Galaxy does not contain a Giant Star it contains a massive Black Hole.
- Red Dwarf is not a Dwarf Planet it is a Star. Most common Stars are Red Dwarf (cool Stars)
- Spiral Galaxies make up about two third of all the Galaxies in the Universe
Commonly Asked Questions
Q. What is the celestial sphere?
A. In astronomy and navigation terms, the celestial sphere is imaginary.
This virtual sphere has a large radius that is concentric with Earth.
We can imagine all objects in the night sky as being projected upon the inside of this celestial sphere, as if it has images placed inside a dome.
Q. What prevents us seeing the Stars and Constellations in the night sky?
A. Light pollution, fog, city lights and artificial lights all limit our visibility of the objects in the sky at night.
Q. Will the Constellations change over time?
A. The Constellations are continually on the move.
The images we form in our imagination to make objects, shapes and patterns out of the constellations have already shifted over time.
As we view the night skies from Earth they are likely to continue to shift and possibly in time the images may look very different.
- Photo by Andy Holmes on Unsplash – https://unsplash.com/s/photos/constellation
- Stellarium – https://in-the-sky.org/data/constellation.php?id=90
- Messier27 – By Jim Mazur – http://www.skyledge.net/Messier27.htm, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=95869328
- Global cluster – Autorstwa NASA Hubble – https://www.flickr.com/photos/144614754@N02/49214617111/, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=87407202
- Open Cluster – Credit & Copyright: Dieter Willasch (Astro-Cabinet) -https://asterisk.apod.com/viewtopic.php?t=25161
- Milky way – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Milky_Way_Galaxy.jpg
- Ptolemy – http://www.hellenicaworld.com/Greece/Science/en/PtolemyAstronomy.html
- Johann-Bayer – https://alchetron.com/Johann-Bayer